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Article: Sylvia 52/2016






Paclík M.: Editorial PDF 25 kB 1
Jaška P., Linhart P. & Fuchs R.: Individual song-mediated recognition in territorial interactions of songbirds abstract PDF 220 kB2–16
Nyklová-Ondrová M., Pojer F., Lacina D., Vermouzek Z., Kaminiecká B., Čejka J., Chvapil S., Macháček P., Makoň K., Molitor P., Prášek V., Vlašín M., Vlček J., Vrána J., Toman A. & Zaňát J.: Results of the 7th International White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) census in the Czech Republic in 2014 – long term trends in abundance, nest placement and reproductive success abstract PDF 297 kB17–33
Šálek M., Beran V., Hanzlíková M., Kipson M., Molitor P., Praus L., Procházka V., Šimeček K., Vít P. & Zeman V.: Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana) in the Czech Republic: population changes and current distribution in core areas abstract PDF 1.3 MB34–52
Grim T.: Are cavity nesters really unsuitable hosts for the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)? An experiment with the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) abstract PDF 2.6 MB53–66
Vavřík M. & FK ČSO: Rare birds in the Czech Republic in 2015 PDF 1.6 MB67–86
Chvapil S.: Obituary – Bohumil Rejman PDF 99 kB87–91
Book Reviews PDF 111 kB92–101

Abstracts

Jaška P., Linhart P. & Fuchs R.: Individual song-mediated recognition in territorial interactions of songbirds. Sylvia 52: 2–16.

The ability to individually recognize conspecifics based on song is very important for birds. During territorial encounters it allows, for example, a relatively peaceful coexistence of neighbouring males. We review the factors suggested to influence the individual recognition ability and summarize the current knowledge about song features used in individual recognition in passerines. The ability of individual recognition is present in most passerines tested to date. The repertoire size or the song sharing has no crucial effect on the recognition ability contrary to what was previously proposed. Nevertheless, the study of factors affecting recognition ability still has an important caveat. It is problematic to prove the absence or weak ability of recognition in the tested species. In this paper we propose a partial solution for this problem. We further review studies investigating the specific song features used for individual recognition and we sort them according to two basic mechanisms of identity signalling. The first mechanism is individual acoustic signature (e.g., the presence of specific elements in the song), the second is individual voice quality (given by the structure of the voice organ). The existence of the acoustic signature was proposed in many species at the level of the whole song or its subunits (phrases, syllables) or also at the level of the entire repertoire. Individual voice qualities are less commonly studied, although this mechanism could have many advantages for example for species with a complex repertoire. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the individual voice quality and we propose a method for differentiating between the two mechanisms used by birds.

Address: ralluscentrum.cz


Nyklová-Ondrová M., Pojer F., Lacina D., Vermouzek Z., Kaminiecká B., Čejka J., Chvapil S., Macháček P., Makoň K., Molitor P., Prášek V., Vlašín M., Vlček J., Vrána J., Toman A. & Zaňát J.: Results of the 7th International White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) census in the Czech Republic in 2014 – long term trends in abundance, nest placement and reproductive success. Sylvia 52: 17–33.

White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) population has been monitored at the international scale since 1934. The seventh international census of the White Stork in 2014 was for the first time in the Czech Republic organized as a citizen science project, while a web site www.cap.birdlife.cz was used for data collation. In this paper, we summarize the results of this census and we compare it with historical data collected in the period 1984–2004. In 2014, we recorded 792 occupied nests (1.00 nests per 100 km2). In 2004, were recorded 814 occupied nests (1.03 nests per 100 km2). Over the period 1984–2004 the number of occupied nests steadily increased. Storks nested mostly (49% of cases) on high chimneys in 2014. Compared to historical data, the proportion of nests on trees decreased and the proportion of nests on electric poles increased. In 2014, 626 nesting pairs bred successfully (79.0%) and fledged in total 1580 young, which means 2.52 fledged young per successful nest. In 2004, the nest success reached 83.8 % and 1 741 young were fledged, which means 2.55 young per successful nest. Over the period 1984–2004, the Storks fledged on average 2.65 young per successful nest without apparent statistical trend. In this paper, we also describe the differences in abundance and nesting success across regions and districts of the Czech Republic.

Address: ondrova.marketaseznam.cz


Šálek M., Beran V., Hanzlíková M., Kipson M., Molitor P., Praus L., Procházka V., Šimeček K., Vít P. & Zeman V.: Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana) in the Czech Republic: population changes and current distribution in core areas. Sylvia 52: 34–52.

The Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana) is one of the fastest declining bird species in Western and Central Europe. Similarly, its population went through dramatic changes during the last 150 years in the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the population dynamics of the Ortolan Bunting within its core areas in the Czech Republic and its current distribution and abundance in 2015. In total, we monitored nine regions with the coverage of 925 km2. We recorded 75–79 singing males in six study areas in the Czech Republic. The largest Ortolan Bunting populations were currently found in surface coal mines in northern Bohemia (34–39 singing males) and in the farmland landscape of the western part of Czech Silesia (36 singing males). Furthermore, the Ortolan Bunting has probably gone extinct from some of its traditional breeding sites (Hovorany-Čejkovice region in southern Moravia, České středohoří in northern Bohemia), whereas in other studied sites in the Polabí region only a small number of individuals remains (former military area of Milovice, farmland landscape around the Žehuňský and Proudnický ponds). The mean population density of the Ortolan Bunting in occupied regions was estimated at 0.1 singing males per km2; however, local density may reach higher values (up to seven singing males per 0.21 km2). The total Czech population of the Ortolan Bunting was estimated at 75–100 singing males in 2015, which indicates further population decline compared to the period 2001–2003.

Addresses: martin.salipost.cz, lutraemail.cz, mart.hanseznam.cz, marinakipsongmail.com, zemvitgmail.com, patrik.molitorseznam.cz, libor.prausgmail.com, aquila.heliacaseznam.cz, karel.simectiscali.cz, achat11centrum.cz


Grim T.: Are cavity nesters really unsuitable hosts for the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)? An experiment with the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). Sylvia 52: 53–66.

Cavity nesting passerines have been traditionally considered the text-book examples of unsuitable Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) hosts. Recent studies of the Great Tit (Parus major) casted doubts on this point of view. Therefore, I tested responses of two additional cavity nesters (the Blue Tit, Cyanistes caeruleus, and Collared Flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis) to simulated brood parasitism. Neither of the two potential host species rejected any of several experimental egg types and their responses to Cuckoo dummies were very weak. I did not detect any case of conspecific or interspecific brood parasitism either in Tits or Flycatchers. Answering the question of why some cavity nesters apparently did coevolve with Cuckoos (Great Tits) but others most likely did not (Blue Tits, Collared Flycatchers) will require additional studies, both intraspecific (different populations of the same species) and interspecific (so far untested species of tits and flycatchers). A good candidate trait to explain this variation is nest architecture, namely nest entrance size and the size of the cavity itself. Such effects have not been tested so far even in artificial nest boxes and could manifest especially in natural cavities which, however, have not yet been studied in the context of brood parasite–host coevolution at all.

Address: tomas.grimupol.cz


02.12.2016
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